The Power of Probiotics

First published in Impact Magazine, Nov, 2015. Papkin_Kraut_bowl

Regular exercise is an optimum way to promote longevity, ward off disease and maintain a healthy body weight. But as many endurance athletes know, extreme exercise can increase the risk of infections and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances.

One possible cause is that high-performance exercise can lead to harmful changes in the gut. During exercise blood flow is shunted away from the digestive system to working muscles providing them with much needed oxygen and nutrients. The repeated undersupply of blood in the GI tract can cause inflammation and stress leading to increased intestinal wall permeability, commonly known as, “leaky gut”. Suffering from leaky gut can increase one’s susceptibility to infections and GI trouble.

There is hope; however, for ailing athletes. One area of scientific research gaining much attention is the health promoting properties of probiotics.

Probiotics simply refer to live micro-organism that have positive effects on our health when consumed. Studies on athletes taking probiotics have shown both a reduction in the incidence and duration of respiratory tract infections and GI episodes compared to those athletes given a placebo.

These beneficial bacteria are credited with improving the integrity of our intestinal barrier so unfriendly microbes can’t slip through causing infection and illness. Research also showed that consuming probiotics regularly increased the body’s production of immune boosting antibodies.

While there are many bottled probiotics on the market, there is another way to ensure your body reaps the rewards of these marvellous microbes. The trick? Consuming a variety of fermented foods.

Fermented foods, such as yogurt, kimchi and miso, are not only loaded with beneficial flora, they also increase the availability of tough-to-absorb minerals including iron, zinc and calcium – key nutrients for the active athlete.

Don’t be afraid to try your hand at fermenting at home. Follow this easy-to-make kraut to add to your salads, chicken and pork dishes, on top of grains or anywhere that needs a little zing!

Fermented foods are not just for athletes. Increasing your intake of probiotic foods can help improve digestion and boost immunity in every body.

Spicy Napa Cabbage & Carrot Krautchrisbarton_Ingredients Kraut_2

  • 1 head (about 2 lbs) Napa Cabbage, cored and finely sliced
  • 4 teaspoons kosher salt
  • 3 medium carrots, grated
  • 1-2 jalapeno peppers, finely diced
  • 1 tablespoon garlic, minced (about 4 cloves)
  • 1 tablespoon ginger, finely diced
  • 1 tablespoon fresh oregano, chopped
  • 1 teaspoon of hot chilli peppers (optional)

Directions

Place the sliced cabbage in a large bowl and toss with the salt. Massage the salted cabbage for about 3 minutes so its juices start to release. Place a plate on top of the cabbage and weigh it down with a tin of beans or something heavy while you prepare the other vegetables.

When the remaining ingredients are ready, add them to the cabbage and mix thoroughly with your hands. Keep squeezing the vegetables to help release their water. Divide the vegetables into mason jars, you should have enough to fill 3 -12 ounce jars leaving a little space at the top.

Push the vegetables down with a blender tamper or spoon so they are submerged Chrisbarton_kraut with tamper_smbeneath their brine. Bacteria grow in an anaerobic environment, that is, without oxygen, so keeping the vegetables submerged in their liquid is crucial. Place a smaller jar or weighted baggy on top of the kraut to keep the vegetables submerged.

Cover jars with a clean cotton dish towel to keep out dust and let them sit on the kitchen counter to ferment. The longer it ferments the stronger the flavour. You can leave your kraut for just one day or up to a few weeks. Taste it regularly and once it reaches the desired ripeness, seal with the lid and place in the refrigerator to stop the fermentation process.

Nutrition

Per ½ cup serving, drained: calories: 18 kcal; fat: 0 grams; protein: 1 gram; carbohydrates: 4 grams; fibre: 1.5 grams; sodium: 469 mg (to reduce sodium further, rinse before eating).

 

References:

 Stephen A. MartinBrandt D. Pence and Jeffrey A. Woods. Exercise and Respiratory Tract Viral Infections. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2009 Oct; 37(4): 157–164. doi:  10.1097/JES.0b013e3181b7b57b

Pyne DB1West NPCox AJCripps AW. Probiotics supplementation for athletes – clinical and physiological effects. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(1):63-72. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2014.971879. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

 Haywood BA1Black KE2Baker D3McGarvey J3Healey P3Brown RC1. Probiotic supplementation reduces the duration and incidence of infections but not severity in elite rugby union players. J Sci Med Sport. 2014 Jul;17(4):356-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2013.08.004. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Gleeson M1Bishop NCOliveira MTauler P. Daily probiotic’s (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes.Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Feb;21(1):55-64.

Gleeson M1Williams C. Intense exercise training and immune function.Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;76:39-50. doi: 10.1159/000350254. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Lamprecht M1Frauwallner A. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation. Med Sport Sci. 2012;59:47-56. doi: 10.1159/000342169. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Erika IsolauriYelda SütasPasi KankaanpääHeikki Arvilommi, and Seppo Salminen. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr February 2001vol. 73 no. 2 444s-450s

 

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5 Fantastic Foods For Your Eyes

While most have heard of cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), lesser-known but insidious eye diseases affect millions of people many of which are children. Diseases such as Stargardt’s Disease, retinitis pigmentosa, Usher Syndrome and diabetic retinopathy can cause vision loss and blindness.

Research has shown that optimizing one’s diet with key nutrients alongside medical treatment may help slow the rate of degeneration in some conditions.

Fantastic Foods #1: Salmon, Sardines and Cold-water Fishomega 3 collage

Cold-water fish are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA. Studies have shown that diets high in these essential fatty acids can help reduce the risk of developing AMD, cataracts and dry eye later in life. A promising study reported that combining omega 3 fatty acids with vitamin A in patients with retinitis pigmentosa slowed the rate of decline of visual acuity.

Omega 3 fatty acids have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body and eating a diet rich in these nutrients may help prevent or postpone the development of diabetic retinopathy

Fantastic Foods #2: Kale, Collard Greens & Spinach

These dark leafy green nutritional powerhouses are loaded with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids found in the retina and lens of the eye. Their role is to help filter harmful light and protect the eye through their anti-oxidant properties.

Studies show that diets rich in these nutrients may help slow the development of AGM and cataracts and reduce the progression of midperipheral vision loss in adults with retinitis pigmentosa.

 Enjoy these leafy greens with olive oil, avocado or some tasty nuts. Carotenoids are best absorbed when consumed with a healthy source of fat.

 Fantastic Foods #3: Scallops, Muscle & Clams

These foods are rich in taurine which is the most abundant amino acid in the retina and acts as a potent antioxidant. Researchers are continuing to investigate taurine’s role in retinal diseases; however, recent studies have shown that taurine can prevent the degeneration of specific retinal cells.

Shellfish is also rich in iodine. Iodine is an essential nutrient for thyroid function. While most people are iodine sufficient, consuming an abundance of certain foods, like those highlighted in Fantastic Foods #2 (e.g. Brassica family), may inhibit the transportation of iodine in some people.

If you start every day by filling your blender with a box full of kale for your morning smoothie then you may want to ensure your iodine levels are sufficient as this can help reduce the impact of these goitrogenic chemicals (goitrin and thiocyanate). Cooking kale, spinach and collards was also shown to reduce their impact.

However, fear not, research has shown that healthy people consuming regular quantities of these foods, such as kale and spinach, on a daily basis did not have any interference with thyroid function.

Fantastic Foods #4: Pumpkin, Sesame & Sunflower Seedspumpkin seeds

These seeds are loaded with zinc and vitamin E. Zinc is highly concentrated in the macula of the eye, which is part of the retina. Its role is to enable vitamin A to synthesize melanin, a protective pigment for our eyes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cloudy cataracts, impaired vision and poor night vision. Those at risk of AMD may benefit from increasing their consumption of foods rich in zinc.

Vitamin E acts as a powerful antioxidant that helps protect the cells in our eyes from free radical damage.

Fantastic Foods #5: Strawberries, Peppers, Papaya & Citrus Fruit

You may have guessed that these fruits provide significant amounts of vitamin C. Like vitamin E, C also acts as an antioxidant protecting our cells from damage. Diets rich in vitamin C are linked to a reduced risk of developing cataracts.

Food and nutrients work synergistically together and studies show that when combining vitamin C with other essential nutrients, like those listed above, it can slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration and visual acuity loss.

Bottom Line:

While no single food or nutrient can cure eye disease, eating a well-balanced nutritious diet loaded with veggies, fruit, fish, shellfish, nuts and seeds may help reduce the risk or slow the progression of certain eye ailments. Focus on food first and always discuss supplements with your doctor prior to taking them.

Recipe: Salmon with Quinoa & Kale Salad

This recipe is not only great for your eyes, the protein-rich salmon, the low glycemic quinoa and antioxidant rich kale is the perfect meal to enjoy after a long training ride.

Serves 4

Ingredients

  • 1 cups quinoa (uncooked)
  • 1 bunch kale (curly or Lacinato, stems removed and thinly sliced)
  • 2 green onions, finely sliced
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice
  • 2 garlic cloves, minced
  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil (divided)
  • Pinch of sea salt
  • 1/4 cup dried cranberries
  • 2 tablespoon pumpkin seeds
  • 4 salmon fillets about 4 oz or 120 grams each.

Sauce to Top:

  • 3 tablespoons lemon juice
  • 2 tablespoons water
  • 2 tablespoons tahini
  • 1 small clove garlic, minced
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 375F.
  2. In a medium saucepan, cook the quinoa for about 10 minutes until grain separates. Drain. Fluff with a fork and set aside.
  3. In a large mixing bowl, combine the kale, lemon juice, green onions, garlic, 1 tablespoon of olive oil and pinch of salt. Massage the kale in the dressing until it begins to soften. Add the cranberries, pumpkin seeds and cooked quinoa to the kale. Mix until combined.
  4. Heat 1 tablespoon of olive oil in a large nonstick pan. Place the salmon on the warmed pan and cook skin-side down for 3-5 minutes or until crispy and brown. Place the salmon in the preheated oven to finish cooking. Depending upon thickness this could take another 5-10 minutes.
  5. Divide the quinoa & kale salad between 4 bowls and top with the salmon.
  6. Make the sauce by whisking all ingredients together in a small bowl until smooth.
  7. Spoon over the fish and serve immediately.

 References:

Berson, M.D.,1 et al. Clinical Trial of Lutein in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa Receiving Vitamin A Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr;128(4):403-11. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.32.

Berson EL1, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, Weigel-DiFranco C, Willett WC. ω-3 intake and visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Jun;130(6):707-11. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.2580.

Felker P1, Bunch R2, Leung AM2. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassicavegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism. Nutr Rev. 2016 Apr;74(4):248-58. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv110. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Froger N1, et al. Taurine is a crucial factor to preserve retinal ganglion cell survival. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;775:69-83. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6130-2_6.

Froger N1, et al. Taurine: the comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014 Jul;41:44-63. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Kowluru RA1, Zhong Q, Santos JM, Thandampallayam M, Putt D, Gierhart DL. Nutr Metab (Lond). Beneficial effects of the nutritional supplements on the development of diabetic retinopathy. 2014 Jan 30;11(1):8. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-11-8.

McCusker MM1, Durrani K2, Payette MJ3, Suchecki J2.An eye on nutrition: The role of vitamins, essential fatty acids, and antioxidants in age-related macular degeneration, dry eye syndrome, and cataract. Clin Dermatol. 2016 Mar-Apr;34(2):276-85. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2015.11.009. Epub 2015 Nov 22.

Shen JH1, Ma Q, Shen SR, Xu GT, Das UN. Effect of α-linolenic acid on streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy indices in vivo. Arch Med Res. 2013 Oct;44(7):514-20. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.09.010. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

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A Better Resolution

 

It’s the end of January when resolution-fatigue often sets in. Wine has reappeared on Monday nights; sweet treats have replaced apples as the afternoon snack; and the 10 day extreme detox didn’t get past day 3 when fatigue and a relentless headache set in.

Some well-intentioned resolutions are just too tough to stick to for the long haul. Ideally, resolutions should be specific, realistic, achievable and, I would add, worth it. They should add some value or benefit to your life.

January is a banger month for detoxes or cleanse programs. But be aware that any program that severely limits caloric intake for a prolonged period of time could end up backfiring. Your body will react by putting the breaks on your metabolism in an effort to conserve energy.

Eliminating entire food groups could also lead to gaping holes in your nutritional intake. In particular, restricting protein while simultaneously reducing calories can lead to the loss of lean muscle, not fat. Reducing muscle mass will further suppress your waning metabolism and when normal eating resumes, fat, not lean tissue, will be gained.

I understand the desire to clean up one’s eating after the excesses of the holidays; however, extreme measures are unnecessary. Reducing sugars, alcohol, refined flours and processed foods while increasing your consumption of whole, fibre-rich vegetables is a realistic and achievable way to start.

It turns out we need to heed this advice as only 40 per cent of Canadians are eating at least five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, which falls well short of Canada’s Food Guide recommendation of 7-10 servings.

Soup’s the Solution

An easy way to increase your consumption of these super-foods is to get your soup on! Soup is not a trend. It has never been out of food fashion and there are plenty of reasons why. Research has shown that regular soup eaters consume more vegetables, fibre, protein and a variety of vitamins and minerals than those who don’t eat soup.

It’s not just the nutrients in soup that makes it a great go-to choice for those with health-focussed resolutions. Studies show that soup-eaters weigh less, have smaller waists and consume fewer daily calories compared to those who avoid this wonderful, warm meal. Soup induces fullness more quickly than solid food and can help reduce hunger throughout the day.

What I personally like about soup is that it forces you to slow down, sit down and enjoy your meal mindfully. You can’t eat soup on the run, or if you do, you may only do so once. Ouch.

Homemade or Close-To-Home-Made

Not all soups are created equal. Most canned soups are loaded with sodium so it is always better to make your own. Alternatively, choose high-quality, fresh products with a short list of ingredients all of which you would find in your own refrigerator.

Adding wholesome vegetable and fibre-rich soup to your daily diet is a resolution that ticks all the boxes: it’s specific, realistic, utterly achievable and is, most definitely, worth it.

 

ROASTED CARROT & PARSNIP SOUP

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 pound carrots, peeled and cut into 1/2-inch rounds
  • ½ pound parsnips, peeled and cut into 1/2-inch rounds
  • 1 yellow onion, quartered
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
  • 3-4 cups vegetable stock
  • Optional: cilantro

 

DIRECTIONS

  1. Preheat oven to 400° F.
  2. In a large roasting pan, combine the carrots, parsnips, onion, 3 tablespoons of the oil, salt and pepper. Spread the vegetables in an even layer and roast, stirring occasionally, until tender and golden brown, about 45 minutes.
  3. Transfer the vegetables to a blender and purée with 3 cups of vegetable stock.       Blend. Add more stock as needed to achieve the right consistency. Reheat in a pot over medium-low heat.
  4. Serve with a drizzle of good quality olive oil and sprinkle of cilantro

 

Resources:

Clegg ME1, Ranawana V, Shafat A, Henry CJ. Soups increase satiety through delayed gastric emptying yet increased glycaemic response. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):8-11. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.152. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Flood JE, Rolls BJ. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake. Appetite. 2007 Nov;49(3):626-34. Epub 2007 Apr 14.

Statistics Canada. Canadian Consumer Health Survey. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2013001/article/11837-eng.htm

Zhu Y, Hollis JH. Soup consumption is associated with a reduced risk of overweight and obesity but not metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 2003-2006. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 30;8(9):e75630. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075630. eCollection 2013.

Zhu Y, Hollis JH. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 28;111(8):1474-80. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513003954. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

 

 

 

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Good Foods For Your Mood

According to mainstream media the third Monday of January is the most depressing day of the year. It even has it’s own name: Blue Monday. In fact January is thought to be the most depressing month of the year. Whether it be unscientific bunk or hold a shred of truth, you can ready yourself to endure these cold, dark days by filling your fridge, and stomach, with good foods for your mood.

Beets For The Brain & The BodyIMG_7854

Beets, along with arugula, celery, kale and watercress are a rich source of dietary nitrates. These natural nitrates improve blood flow throughout the body and, importantly, to the pre-frontal cortex of the brain which is involved with cognition and executive function. Studies have shown improved cognitive performance after consumption of these brain-boosting foods. As an added bonus, the nitrates help dilate blood vessels which reduces blood pressure and increases blood flow to muscles resulting in improved physical stamina and endurance.

Omega 3 Rich Foods: Sardines, Salmon, Walnuts & Chia SeedsIMG_7858

Low levels of these essential fatty acids have been associated with an increased risk of depression. A 2015 review of 26 studies found that omega 3 fatty acids had a beneficial effect on symptoms of depression compared to a placebo.

Omega 3s are highly concentrated in the brain and help keep the brain cell membranes fluid. Cell membrane fluidity is crucial for enhancing swift communication between neurons.

Sardines, salmon and walnuts are also a good source of zinc which is involved in sleep regulation. Sufficient sleep is imperative in warding off the blues. Low levels of zinc have also been associated with increased risk of depression and mood disorders.

Quercetin & Anti-inflammatory Foods

It is important to consider one’s overall diet in relation to reducing the risk of any disease including mood disorders. Adding isolated foods or nutrients to a mediocre diet is unlikely to yield positive results. However, improving one’s long-term eating pattern can reduce the risk of developing lifestyle diseases and depression.

A 2013 study revealed that women who regularly ate inflammatory foods were 41% more likely to suffer from depression. Inflammatory foods include:

  • Refined sugars; (pop, desserts, candy, cookies)
  • Processed and refined grains (white bread, pasta, crackers, and more);
  • Animal fats; red meat
  • Food Allergens (hidden food allergies cause body and brain inflammation)

Quercetin is a phytochemical that acts as a natural anti-depressant as it down-regulates inflammatory pathways. Apples, kale, berries, grapes, onion, and green tea are all great sources of quercetin.

Other foods rich in anti-inflammatory nutrients include olive oil, turmeric, ginger, cruciferous veggies (broccoli, Brussels sprouts) and plant protein like edamame, chickpeas and lentils.

Reducing the amount of pop, sugar, flour, and processed meats in your diet and eating an abundance of fresh, unprocessed vegetables, fruits, nuts and legumes is a great way to improve both physical and mental health. Try the recipe below for generous helping of anti-inflammatory nutrients including omega 3 fatty acids.

 

Merry Mood Sardines

MAKES 2 SERVINGS

  • 1 lemon, freshly squeezed juice
  • 1 teaspoon lemon zest
  • 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
  • 2 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil (separated into single teaspoons)
  • Pinch of sea salt & freshly ground pepper
  • 2 green onions, finely chopped
  • 
1 tablespoon finely diced cornichon
  • 1 sprig of celery, diced
  • Sprinkle of freshly chopped parsley
  • 

1 can sardines, drained
  • Bunch of kale, washed, dried & shredded (or use baby kale leaves)

Mix 4 teaspoons of lemon juice, the zest, mustard, 1 tsp of olive oil salt, pepper, green onion, cornichon, celery and parsley together in a bowl. Add the sardines and flake them into chunky pieces with a fork. Stir gently to combine. Place shredded kale in a bowl and drizzle with 1 tsp of olive oil. Massage oil into kale with hands. Place sardines on top and toss all together. Add a squeeze of lemon juice to finish, if desired.

Resources:

Kapil V1, Milsom AB, Okorie M, Maleki-Toyserkani S, Akram F, Rehman F, Arghandawi S, Pearl V, Benjamin N, Loukogeorgakis S, Macallister R, Hobbs AJ Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans: role for nitrite-derived NO. Hypertension. 2010 Aug;56(2):274-81. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.153536. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

Wightman EL1, Haskell-Ramsay CF1, Thompson KG2, Blackwell JR3, Winyard PG4, Forster J1, Jones AM3, Kennedy DO5 Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Physiol Behav. 2015 Oct 1;149:149-58. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.035. Epub 2015 May 31.

Clifford T1, Howatson G2,3, West DJ4, Stevenson EJ5.The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease. Nutrients. 2015 Apr 14;7(4):2801-22. doi: 10.3390/nu7042801.

Appleton KM1, Sallis HM, Perry R, Ness AR, Churchill R. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 5;11:CD004692. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004692.pub4.

Riemer S1, Maes M, Christophe A, Rief W. Lowered omega-3 PUFAs are related to major depression, but not to somatization syndrome. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun;123(1-3):173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Aug 31.

Ranjbar E, Kasaei MS, Mohammad-Shirazi M, et al. Effects of Zinc Supplementation in Patients with Major Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Iranian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013;8(2):73-79.

Lucas M, Chocano-Bedoya P, et al. Inflammatory dietary pattern and risk of depression among women. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Jan;28(1):1-8.

Chirumbolo S1. The role of quercetin, flavonols and flavones in modulating inflammatory cell function. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2010 Sep;9(4):263-85.

 

 

 

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My Job? To Put Myself Out of a Job

pic me needs work

My goal is to put myself out of a job for every individual client. I want to empower my clients with knowledge, motivation and tools that they can use to move forward indefinitely with eating the right foods (most of the time), in the right amount, for the right reason. Simply put, to become and live as intuitive eaters.

One of the first things I tell my clients is that “I don’t do diets”. Diets are something you go on and then come off of – a recipe for disaster in my mind. I want each client to establish long-term changes in their eating habits and lifestyle that last a lifetime. There is no on again off again. This is life. Let’s get it right.

Many people suffer from some form of emotional eating. It doesn’t always relate to negative emotions either. Sure, stress, fatigue and anxiety can lead one to the Doritos, but so too can happiness, excitement, new love, and fun. We eat for many reasons, but really we should only eat for one. Any guesses? You got it: eat when you are hungry. Only. Period. Full Stop. The second half to that equation is: stop the moment you are satisfied. “Satisfied” means no longer hungry; not “stuffed to the gills”. Following these two simple maxims is the key to intuitive eating.

Overcoming emotional eating takes practice and perseverance. Recognition is the first step and then developing alternative coping skills away from food is essential. For some, it may require help in the form of professional counselling. However, for many, it can be achieved with a bit of motivation and a lot of mindfulness.

As we are approaching the holidays we will all be faced with multiple temptations throughout the day. Shortbread brought to work, cocktail party canapés, chocolate chocolate everywhere. Before you indulge, take a moment to ask yourself the following questions and guide yourself through the intuitive eating flow chart.

Intuitive eating chart_correctedIf you end up at “eat and enjoy without guilt” do so. However, keep in mind that one or two Purdy’s chocolate will satisfy that craving, but 10 will lead to remorse.

The question “will I be deprived if I don’t eat it?” is a key one. If you stop banning foods and give yourself permission to enjoy the odd treat, the answer to this question will become clear. A tray of store-bought Christmas cookies that has been sitting out on the kitchen table all day may elicit the answer “no, I will not be deprived if I don’t eat this”. However, you may choose to indulge in a piece of your grandma’s famous homemade fudge.

Santas Christmas Cookie Snack

Intuitive eating isn’t about throwing caution to the wind and eating anything you want, whenever you want. It involves mindful choices that allows you to find a balance between eating food you enjoy, when you are hungry, stopping when satisfied and then getting on with the rest of your life.

For more information or to kick-start your own path to intuitive eating contact me at haleybarton@nutritionsavvy.ca

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On the Chopping Block: Bacon, Ham, Hot Dogs & Salami…

If you picked up a paper last week or turned on the news you will have heard that the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, published their findings on the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat. This group of 22 international expert concluded that processed meat should be classified as “carcinogenic” (ie causes cancer) to humans (Group 1) based on sufficient evidence from over 800 studies.

They concluded that red meat should be classified “probably carcinogenic” to humans (Group 2A) based on limited evidence that the consumption of meat causes colorectal cancer.

Group 1 classifications show that there is convincing evidence that the agent causes cancer. Group 2A classifications means that the agent is probably carcinogenic to humans. The experts found a positive association between red meat and colorectal cancer; however, other explanations cannot be ruled out.

What is Processed Meat?chopped bacon and salami on a plate

Processed meat is meat that is not fresh and that has been transformed through curing, smoking, salting, fermentation, addition of preservatives or other processes to enhance flavour or prolong preservation. Examples include hot dogs, salami, bologna, ham, corned beef, and jerky.

What is Red Meat?

For the purposes of these studies red meat includes beef, lamb, veal, mutton, horse, goat and, yes, even “the other white meat”, pork.

What’s the Risk?

Researchers found that the risk is dose-dependent, that means, the more you eat, the
higher the risk. Studies showed that for every 50 grams (1.7 ounces) of processed meat eaten daily, it increases the risk of colorectal cancer by about 18%.

The risk in consuming red meat is more difficult to quantify; however, researchers estimate that the risk of colorectal cancer could increase by 17% for every 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of red meat eaten daily.

These are ballpark figures and every person’s risk will be different as cancer development is due to a multitude of factors, some known, some unknown.

How Does Processed & Red Meat Cause Cancer

There are multiple ways in which red and processed meat may cause cancer although the precise mechanisms are still up for debate. One potentially causative factor is due to the heme iron contained in red meat. Once digested, it may cause damage to the lining of our colon (mucosa). This damage then spurs on cellular replication in order to commence the healing process. This added replication can increase the chance of DNA errors in the new cells which can develop into the early stages of cancer.

Processed red meat will have naturally occurring heme iron as well as added nitrites or nitrates to help the preservation of the products. These nitrites and nitrates are converted in our bodies to form n-nitroso compounds which are the cancer causing agents.

Cooking meat at high temperatures and until well done can cause the formation of another
carcinogen called heterocyclic amines. Barbecuing meat can also cause the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are another type of carcinogen.

What to do:

If you have colorectal cancer in your family you may wish to avoid processed meat as much as possible. For all others, having processed meat as infrequently as you are able is a good first step. Keep the ham, salamis and sausages for very special treats.

The evidence for red meat is not as strong and it bears reminding that red meat does contain important nutrients such as protein, zinc, iron and vitamin B12. However, it does make sense to be mindful of the amount of red meat we are eating. Keeping within the guidelines produced by the Canadian Cancer Society is a good start. They recommend limiting red meat to three 85 gram (3 ounce) servings per week for adults.

When you do enjoy your red meat try not to char, burn or use high temperatures while cooking. Using wet cooking methods like braising or stewing can reduce the formation of carcinogens.

Choose fish over meat and aim to have vegetarian days a couple times a week. Get friendly with lentils, edamame, chickpeas and lots of veg. The die-hard carnivores often enjoy mushrooms for their meaty texture.

Ham-Free Lunch Box Ideas

After this news broke I received numerous queries from parents on what to put in their children’s lunchbox as ham and salami were a mainstay for many families.

Here are some healthy lunchbox alternatives to put between two pieces of bread:

  • Wild Salmon Salad – tinned salmon with squeeze of lemon juice, small spoonful of mayo and chopped cucumber and celery. For adventurous kids green onions and capers give this sandwich a great zing.
  • Grilled Veggies with Hummus – stick to what your kids like, if it’s just red peppers for now, great, if you can add zucchini and eggplant, even better. A thick spread of hummus will provide a source of protein.
  • Bananas & School-Safe Butters – pumpkin seed butter with slices of bananas (I won’t tell if you add a drizzle of honey or jam). I often roll this up in a whole grain tortilla.
  • Blended Veggie Bagel – steam cauliflower and broccoli until soft. Add a dollop of plain or herbed cream cheese and blend together to make a spread. Spread on a whole grain bagel for a healthy twist on plain cream cheese.
  • Coronation Chicken Pitas – chicken is already a popular sandwich filling but try switching up the flavours by making a British classic: coronation chicken.

Coronation Chicken Pitas

  • 2 tbsp natural Greek yogurt
  • 1/2 tsp mild curry powder
  • 1 tsp mango chutney
  • 1/4 ripe mango, peeled and chopped into small 2cm pieces (if available)
  • Small bunch of cilantro leaves (about 5), chopped (optional)
  • 1.5-2 ounces of roast chicken, chopped into 2 cm pieces
  • 1 green leaf lettuce, washed & torn
  • 2 mini whole grain pitas

Add the yogurt, curry powder, chutney together in a bowl and mix to combine. Fold in the chicken, fresh mango and cilantro. Fill two mini whole grain pitas with chicken mixture and a few pieces of fresh green leaf lettuce.

More Information:

  • Cancer Below the Belt: http://nutritionsavvy.ca/cancer-below-the-belt/
  • http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr240_E.pdf
  • http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(15)00444-1/abstract
  • http://www.who.int/features/qa/cancer-red-meat/en/#
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Packed Lunches Made Easy

As much as we may be looking forward to the return of school, the idea of another 10 months of packed lunches can seem daunting. But it doesn’t have to be.

A Few Quick Tips:

  • If your child doesn’t eat this food at home, don’t pack it in their lunch. This is not the time to try new foods.
  • Some repetition is ok. If kids love a chicken sandwich, you can give them a chicken sandwich quite regularly. Just try to avoid the exact same meal 5 days in a row week after week.
  • Don’t panic if it appears that your child survives on air during the day. See my post on Skimpy School Time Eating
  • Whatever they miss out on, try to supplement at breakfast or dinner. If you find your child never touches their veggies or fruit in their packed lunch, try adding more to the menu before or after school. Fruit smoothies in the morning are a great way to pack in a couple servings of fruit and raw veggies with hummus or guacamole is a great after-school snack.
  • For picky or light eaters focus on nutrient dense homemade bars or muffins like the sugarless pumpkin muffins or blueberry power bars (recipes below).

Filling the Lunch Box

Let’s first look at what should (ideally) go into a lunch box. Remember that the contents of the lunch box will contribute about 1/3rd of your child’s daily diet for 5 out of 7 days a week, assuming it is eaten. That’s a lot of food, so in a perfect world we want to fill it with foods that pack a nutritional punch.

WHATWHYHOW
2-3 Fruits & VegetablesChildren need a minimum of 5 servings of fruit and veg a day in order to obtain all their nutrient needs, including vitamin C, potassium, folic acid and fibre. Fibre is filling and slows the absorption of sugar, particularly from fruit. Keep it simple- raw crunchy veggies:
Sugar snap peas
Carrots
Bell peppers
Celery
Cucumber
Cherry tomatoes
Cauliflower
Sugar snap peas
Beets
Cooked in a thermos: · carrots, peas, corn, cauliflower with butter and new potatoes
Easy to pack fruits:
Apples
Pears
Mandarin oranges
Bananas
Berries
Kiwi
Plums
Melons
Add chopped fruits & veggies to whole grain salads.
1-2 Whole Grains / Starchy VegetablesChoosing whole grain products will not only provide more nutrients, but will keep your children satisfied for longer due to the added fibre and protein contained in whole grains.Whole grain breads, pitas and wraps are always an option for sandwich style lunches but also try:
Quinoa salad with black beans, corn and tomatoes
Try to avoid sugar-laden refined flour products like store bought muffins, cookies or sweet breads which will spike their blood sugar and leave your children tired and hungry during afternoon classes.Wild rice salad with apple, celery and raisins
Roasted yams with kale (warm in thermos)
Beef and barley stew
Whole grain crackers: Nairn Oat Cakes, Mary’s Gone Crackers with pumpkin seed butter or hummus
1 Protein FoodKids need between 1-3 servings of protein rich food a day depending upon their age and size. Protein satisfies the appetite and keeps blood sugar steady. It’s not just meat! Plant protein is a wonderful choice as it is high in both protein and fibre-rich carbohydrates. Black beans with corn, salsa and melted cheese
Chick peas with cucumber, feta and peppers
Thermos of lentil soup
Container of edamame
Pitas filled with canned salmon, sardines, or fresh shrimp.
Flax wraps filled with egg salad, slices of turkey, nitrate-free ham, lean beef, or pork tenderloin
1 Calcium FoodChildren need between 2-4 servings of calcium-rich foods a day depending on age. Drinking cow, soy, or almond milk with meals is an easy way to reach this goal. These products provide calcium and vitamin D for growing bones. Be aware that not all milk alternatives are fortified with calcium and vitamin D. Be sure to read the label.

Other great non-dairy sources of calcium include tinned salmon with bones, edamame, white beans, almonds (not at school), broccoli, sesame seeds, leafy greens like kale and collard.
With dairy or dairy alternatives choose sugar free options as much as possible:
Milk, soy milk, cottage cheese, babybel, unsweetened yogurt
Healthy FatsHealthy fats optimize brain development and function particularly in children. They also add flavour to foods. Nuts are not allowed in elementary schools but seeds & their butters are – pumpkin, sunflower, flax and sesame – combine with raisins for school-safe trail mix
Olive oil based salad dressing
Hummus & bean dips with tahini
Avocadoes
Fatty fish: canned salmon, mackerel & sardines

Whole fruits, vegetables, protein and whole grains are satiating and slowly absorbed. Having the bulk of the lunchbox filled with these natural, unprocessed foods will not only help children meet their nutritional needs, but also allow them to concentrate and thrive in the classroom.

For more ideas watch CTV Morning Live on Monday September 6th where I’ll be presenting some other fresh ideas for Back to School Lunches.

NUTRIENT-DENSE LUNCH BOX FILLERS

PUMPKIN BANANA MUFFINS (gluten, dairy and sugar-free!)

Ingredients

  • 1 ¼ cups chickpea flour (for kids allowed nuts or weekend treats, ground almonds work well)
  • ¼ cup ground flax seeds
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 2 teaspoons pumpkin pie spice (combination of cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg)
  • Pinch of salt
  • 3 eggs
  • ½ cup canned pumpkin
  • 1 large ripe banana, mashed
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Preparation:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.  Line muffin pan with paper liners or use coconut oil to grease pan.

In a large bowl mix together chickpea flour, ground flax seeds, baking powder, baking soda, pumpkin pie spice, and salt.  Set aside.

In a small bowl whisk together eggs, pumpkin, banana, and vanilla extract. Add wet ingredients to dry ingredients and mix to combine.

Scoop batter into prepared muffin pan cups filling ¾ full. Bake muffins for 20 to 25 minutes or until golden.

Makes 12 muffins.

Tip: If your kids balk at the lack of sweetness, I sometimes use the trick of adding one small piece of 85% chocolate on top of each muffin. It is the first bite they take and that tends to seal the deal.

BLUEBERRY BRAIN BARS 

blueberry bars croppedIngredients

  • 1 cup old-fashioned rolled oats
  • ¼ cup pumpkin seeds
  • ¼ cup sunflower seeds
  • 1 tablespoon flaxseeds
  • 1 tablespoon chia seeds
  • 1 cup unsweetened whole-grain puffed cereal (Kashi or Brown Rice Krispies)
  • ½ cup dried blueberries
  • ½ cup chopped dried apricots
  • 3/4 cup creamy unsweetened school-safe seed butter (pumpkin, sunflower or soybean)
  • 3 Tablespoons honey
  • ½ teaspoon vanilla extract
  • Pinch of salt

Preparation

Preheat oven to 350°F. Coat an 8-inch-square pan with cooking spray.

Spread oats, pumpkin, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds and chia seeds on a large, rimmed baking sheet. Bake until the oats are lightly toasted and the nuts are fragrant, shaking the pan halfway through, about 10 minutes. Transfer to a large bowl. Add cereal, dried blueberries and apricots; toss to combine.

Combine seed butter, honey, vanilla and salt in a small saucepan. Heat over medium-low, stirring frequently, until the mixture bubbles lightly, 2 to 5 minutes.

Immediately pour the seed butter & honey mixture over the dry ingredients and mix with a spoon or spatula until no dry spots remain. Transfer to the prepared pan. Lightly coat your hands with cooking spray and press the mixture down firmly to make an even layer (wait until the mixture cools slightly if necessary). Refrigerate until firm, about 30 minutes; cut into 8 bars.

See other great recipes for the lunch box on my recipe pages:

 

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome & FODMAPs

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gut disorders affecting between 9-23% of people in Canada and the US. It is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel habits. While many people suffer only mild, intermittent symptoms, others have more severe reaction that affects their quality of life.

An Australian research team has developed a dietary therapy to help ease the symptoms of IBS and other functional gut disorders (constipation, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and other unspecified bowel disorders) by identifying and limiting a group of specific foods called FODMAPs.

The acronym FODMAP stands for Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols which is used to describe a group of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are most likely to be fermented by our gut bacteria causing gas, bloating and diarrhea. Limiting the global amount of FODMAPs in one’s diet has been shown to reduce symptoms of IBS and other functional gut disorders in many (but not all) people.

The list of FODMAP foods to limit or avoid can, at first, appear overwhelming (list below). It spans the gamut of regular go-to foods like apples, bread and yogurt. If you suffer from IBS or other gut disorders and wish to try a low-FODMAP diet you may wish to enlist the help of an experienced nutritionist or dietician. It is possible that nutritional deficiencies could develop over time if a variety of low-FODMAP foods are not consumed.

The FODMAP diet is not intended to be followed for life. It is a plan to help identify and minimize the most troublesome foods for each individual. As you can see, the vast majority of FODMAP foods are extremely healthy and provide important nutrients and fibre to feed our friendly bacteria in our gut. We don’t want to ban all these nutritious nuggets forever, but simply limit one’s overall consumption of the most troublesome FODMAPs that trigger symptoms of IBS.

If you do want to give it a go by yourself, try eliminating the high FODMAP foods from the list below for a period of two weeks. If your symptoms improve, try adding small portions of foods from one category of the FODMAP list, for example, a few cashews from the fructan group. Continue to slowly add foods one at a time back into your meal plan noting any symptoms that occur in a food diary so you are able to identify those that are the most problematic.

While on this plan ensure you eat a wide variety of low FODMAP foods from the list below. Aim to consume at least 7 servings from the vegetables list each day. Great choices include dark green leafy vegetables such as kale, Swiss chard and spinach, as well as, tomatoes, carrots and green beans. (See recipe for Kale Chips below).

Don’t simply opt for gluten-free bread; eat whole, non-gluten grains like oatmeal, quinoa, wild rice and millet. Berries are nutritional powerhouses, so snacking on berries is a great way to help meet your nutritional needs. See the full list of low-FODMAP foods below.

A note of caution, the long-term safety of the FODMAP diet is still to be determined. There are concerns for those following the diet for prolonged periods of time, in particular –

  • whether there is a potential increase in risk for developing colon cancer
  • what are the potential consequences of reducing prebiotics for healthy gut bacteria
  • potential development of nutritional deficiencies if followed for prolonged period of time

Be aware that there are many out-dated FODMAP lists on the internet. The best resources come from Monash University where much of the primary research has been undertaken. http://www.med.monash.edu/cecs/gastro/fodmap/

HIGH FODMAP FOODS

FructansGalactansLactoseExcess FructosePolyols 
OligosaccharideOligosaccharideDisaccharidesMonosaccharidesSugar Alcohols
Vegetables: artichokes, aspargus, beets, garlic, leek, onions, raddichioLegumes: chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans, baked beans, soybeans, soy milk, soy flourMilk Products: cow, sheep and goat's milk, ice cream, yogurtFruits: apples, pears, mangoes, figs, watermelonFruits: apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, nectarines, pears, plums, prunes
Grains: gluten grains- wheat, barley, rye and inulinCheese: ricotta, cottage cheese, mascarponeSweeteners: agave, high fructose corn syrup, honeyVegetables: avocados, cauliflower, green pepper, mushrooms, pumpkin, snow peas
Nuts: cashews, pistachiosSweeteners: sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, maltitol, xylitol

LOW FODMAP FOODS

OK FructansOK Galactans OK LactoseOK FructoseOK Polyols
Vegetables: carrots, green beans, tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, spinach, chard, kale, lettuce, corn, eggplant, bell peppers, summer squash, zucchini, turnipsLegumes: firm tofuLactose-free milk and milk productsFruits: ripe bananas, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapefruit, oranges, limes, lemons, kiwi, grapes, honeydew, rhubarb, pineapple, cantaloupe, honeydewFruits: ripe bananas, blueberries, raspberries, grapes, grapefruit, honeydew, kiwi, lemons, limes, oranges.
Gluten free grains: rice, corn, quinoa, buckwheat, oats, millet, amaranthCheese: hard cheese: cheddar, parmesan, swiss, mozzarella. Ripened cheese: feta, brie, camembert Sweeteners: table sugar, maple syrupSweeteners: table sugar, glucose

Kale Chips

  • 1 bunch curly kale
  • Drizzle olive oil (about 1-2 teaspoons)
  • Pinch of good quality sea salt

Preheat an oven to 300 degrees F.

With a knife or kitchen shears remove the leaves from the thick stems and tear into bite size pieces. Wash and thoroughly dry kale with a salad spinner or tea towel. Drizzle kale with olive oil and sprinkle with salt.
Bake for about 10 minutes and then rotate the pan. Bake for another 5-10 minutes or until the edges are brown and crisp but not burnt.

Resources:

De Giorgio R1, Volta U1, Gibson PR2. Sensitivity to wheat, gluten and FODMAPs in IBS: facts or fiction? Gut. 2015 Jun 15. pii: gutjnl-2015-309757. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309757.

Mansueto P1, Seidita A2, D’Alcamo A2, Carroccio A3. Role of FODMAPs in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review. Nutr Clin Pract. 2015 Feb 18. pii: 0884533615569886. 

Marsh A1, Eslick EM, Eslick GD. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2015 May 17.

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Is Fasting All It’s Cracked Up To Be?

A Google search on “fasting” elicits over 36 million hits. Needless to say, it’s a hot topic.

Fasting simply means a voluntary abstinence from food and drink (not including water). It’s not new; it has been practiced by numerous cultures and religions throughout the world for millennia.

But studies, particularly on mice, have shown fasting may help weight loss and improve metabolic health markers, such as blood lipids (fat) and blood sugar regulation.

There are four main types of intermittent fasting:

  • Alternate Day Fasting: alternate a day of fasting with a day of eating normally.
  • Modified Fasting Regime: consume about 25% of energy needs on scheduled fasting days and eat as you would like on remaining days, example is 5:2 Diet.
  • Time- Restricted Feeding: eat normally for a set period of time (e.g. 12 hours) and then consume no food for a set period of time (e.g. 12 hours)
  • Religious Fasting: various fasting regimes undertaken for religious purposes such as Ramadan.

There have been very few human studies on Alternate Day or Modified Fasting Regimes. The few that do exist were very small and did not have control groups to compare the outcomes. However, these studies did show that the subjects lost weight and showed improvements in their blood glucose regulation and lipid profile, that is, they had a reduction in LDL cholesterol and total triglycerides. The downside is that both the alternate day fasting and modified fasting regime did not hold any benefits above a regular calorie reduction weight loss plan and many found the plans difficult to stick to. If you can’t stick to it, then long-term maintenance is impossible.

The evidence on time-restricted feeding is quite compelling. However, most research has been conducted on mice not humans. In one study the researchers gave slim mice a high fat diet and let them eat it all day long as much as they wanted. Those mice got fat. They took another group of mice and gave them a high fat diet but allowed them to eat it only during set hours of the day, so they were on a time-restricted feeding program. The mice stayed lean. Finally, they took another group of lean mice fed them a high fat diet and for 5 days restricted the time they were allowed to eat, but allowed them free access to food for the weekend. The result? Those mice stayed lean as well.

Interesting mice studies, but what about humans? A pilot study using human subjects gave the participants simple guidelines. They asked them to fast for 12 hours or more, ideally staring at 7pm; however, definitely no later than 8pm. They were not advised on what food to eat or how much, simply on when to eat it.

After one month the subjects had lost between 1.06- 1.53kg (2.3- 3.3 lbs). But what is even more noteworthy is the feedback they provided. Between 90-100% of participants said the fast:

  • was easy to adhere to
  • was very/ somewhat pleasant
  • would recommend it to a friend

As any frustrated dieter knows, it’s one thing to lose weight but keeping it off often proves the most challenging. Following a simple routine of ceasing eating after an early-ish dinner and not grazing, snacking or munching until breakfast time may be enough to see weight loss and overall benefits to health.

How Does It Work?

It’s hypothesized that nighttime fasting helps regulate our circadian rhythm. During daytime our bodies are hard-wired to eat, move and function. Testosterone is high, our blood pressure is up and melatonin is reduced. At nighttime, our body shifts into repair mode and uses stored energy for fuel. Intermittent fasting appears to be a circadian synchronizer and helps our metabolism stay in check.

It is also hypothesized that many functions of our gastro-intestinal tract exhibit robust circadian or 
sleep-wake rhythms and can even reduce the diversity of our microbiome (flora in our gut). Low-diversity in our microbiota is associated with increased levels of body fat, inflammation, triglycerides and insulin resistance, all of which are precursors to heart disease.

Of course, another factor into the mechanism of action as to why time-restricted feeding may prove to be beneficial is that if you don’t eat for 12-14 hours a day, you simply eat less. It can also reduce the amount of food consumed at night, which is ideal for weight maintenance (see http://nutritionsavvy.ca/5-slimming-summer-salads/). Finally, time-restricted feeding also appears to help regulate our appetite hormones, such as leptin, ghrelin and xenin which are integral to maintaining a healthy body weight.

The Bottom Line

Further research on humans needs to be undertaken before we can conclude definitively that intermittent fasting is as effective on humans as it is on mice. However, limiting your eating to a 12 hour period may result in health benefits including weight loss, improved triglyceride levels and blood sugar control and be something that you can do for life. As I often say “do not start a diet that you cannot maintain for the rest of your life”.

Please Note: Intermittent Fasting is NOT for everyone.

Who Should Not Fast:

  • Children (under 18 years old)
  • People who are underweight or have an eating disorder
  • Type 1 diabetics and diabetics taking medication for their diabetes
  • Pregnant women or breast feeding mothers
  • People recovering from surgery
  • Anyone suffering from an underlying medical condition should speak to their doctor first
  • Those who are elderly and/or frail.
  • Those who are not sure about whether it may affect their prescribed medications should to speak to their doctor first.
  • People feeling unwell or have a fever
  • Those taking Warfarin should consult their doctor first

 

References:

Carlson O1 et al., Ferrucci LIngram DKLongo DLRumpler WVBaer DJEgan JMattson MP. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal-weight middle-aged men and women. Metabolism. 2007 Dec;56(12):1729-34.

Chaix, Zarrinpar, Miu, Panda. Time-Restricted Feeding Is a Preventative and Therapeutic Intervention against Diverse Nutritional Challenges. Cell Metabolism, Volume 20, Issue 6, 2014, 991 – 1005

Cotillard A1, et al., Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness. Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):585-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12480.

Halberg N1Henriksen MSöderhamn NStallknecht BPloug TSchjerling PDela F.Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Dec;99(6):2128-36. Epub 2005 Jul 28.

Heilbronn LK, Civitarese AE, Bogacka I, Smith SR, Hulver M, Ravussin E. Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle gene expression in response to alternate day fasting. Obes Res. 2005 Mar;13(3):574-81.

Heilbronn LK, Smith SR, Martin CK, Anton SD, Ravussin E. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):69-73.

Horne BD1Muhlestein JBLappé DLMay HTCarlquist JFGalenko OBrunisholz KDAnderson JL. Randomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Nov;23(11):1050-7. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.09.007. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

LeCheminant JD1Christenson EBailey BWTucker LA. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 2013 Dec 14;110(11):2108-13. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513001359. Epub 2013 May 23.

Schiavo-Cardozo D1Lima MMPareja JCGeloneze B.Appetite-regulating hormones from the upper gut: disrupted control of xenin and ghrelin in night workers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Dec;79(6):807-11. doi: 10.1111/cen.12114. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

 

 

 

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5 Slimming Summer Salads

Everyone wants to look their best in the summer. But how do you shed those extra pounds that snuck on since Christmas?

It can be hard reducing the amount of food we eat or changing our usual go-to choices.  But here is one quick tip that can help you along your way.

Fuel for the day, lighten at night.

You’ve heard the old adage: eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper? It’s good advice, yet, culturally we tend to do the opposite. We need food to energize us through our busy day. But come evening time, activity levels reduce as we gear down for the night.

If you skip breakfast or eat small amounts through the day, your hunger will build and by the time 5pm rolls around, you are famished. You end up eating more than you would normally if you had a decent breakfast and lunch.

So start your day with a proper breakfast. Enjoy a lunch that satisfies you through the afternoon. If you are hungry at 4pm or so, have a healthy snack that will take the edge off your appetite. Prepare a lighter, vegetable-focussed dinner with a source of protein. When your plate is done, so are you. No second helpings.

Aim to eat about 3 hours before bed time so your body has a chance to digest your dinner and to reduce the chance of heart burn. Wake up hungry and ready to fuel for the next day.

Need some inspiration? Try these 5 Delicious Dinner Salads. One for each day of the work week.

For more info check out my segment on CTV Morning Live on Slimming Summer Salads:  http://bc.ctvnews.ca/recipes/five-healthy-summer-salads-1.2391902

Asian Shredded Chicken SaladIMG_5250

  • 3 ounces rotisserie chicken
  • 1 cup shredded napa cabbage
  • 1 carrot, grated
  • ½ red pepper julienned
  • small handful snow peas, cut on diagonal
  • cilantro – torn
  • 1 tablespoon black and white sesame seeds
  • 1 tablespoon slivered almonds

Dressing

  • 2 teaspoons rice vinegar
  • 2 teaspoon low-sodium soy sauce
  • 1 teaspoon dark sesame oil
  • ½ teaspoon honey

Combine all ingredients and toss with dressing. Can use pre-cut and washed broccoli slaw to save time! Serves 1.

Fava Bean & Asparagus SaladIMG_5249

  • ½ cup fava beans (about 10 pods), blanched for 1 minute and de-skinned
  • 5 asparagus spears
  • 2 cups arugula
  • 1 tablespoon torn fresh mint
  • 1 tablespoon shaved pecorino cheese
  • 1 egg

Dressing:

  • 1 tsp olive oil
  • 2 tbsp fresh lemon juice
  • 1 tsp Dijon mustard
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Prepare fava beans. Steam asparagus for 1 minute. In the meantime poach egg. Combine all ingredients for dressing and whisk together with a fork. Assemble salad by laying down arugula, top with asparagus, fava beans, mint and toss gently with lemon vinaigrette. Top with shaved pecorino cheese and poached egg. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serves 1.

Grilled Prawns & Corn Summer SaladIMG_5247

  • 3-4 raw prawns, deveined, on skewer.
  • 1 tsp olive oil
  • 1 clove garlic minced
  • Juice of 1 lemon
  • 1 cob of corn
  • Small head of butter lettuce
  • Handful of grape tomatoes
  • 1/3 of an avocado

Lemon Vinaigrette (recipe above)

Preheat BBQ and place cob of corn on hot grill. Turn regularly so each side turns golden brown and caramelized. Remove from heat to cool. Combine olive oil, garlic and lemon juice and brush onto prawns. Place prawns on grill and cook about 3 minutes a side depending on size. Continue to brush with garlic marinade.

Assemble salad by laying down butter lettuce, chopped tomatoes and avocadoes. Cut kernels off the cob of corn and sprinkled on top of lettuce. Toss gently with lemon vinaigrette. Add cooked skewered prawns to top. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serves 1.

 

Spelt Salad with Strawberries, Mint & FetaIMG_5246

  • ½ cup of pre-cooked spelt (option to use quinoa)
  • ½ cup sliced strawberries
  • 1 tablespoon torn mint
  • 2 radishes sliced
  • 1 ounce crumbled feta
  • 1 green onion, sliced
  • 2 cups spinach
  • Dressing: 2 teaspoons olive oil + drizzle (1 teaspoon or so) of balsamic vinegar

Combine first 6 ingredients and toss with ½ the amount of dressing. Assemble spinach on plate and place grain salad on top. Drizzle remaining dressing on top and season with salt and pepper to taste. Serves 1.

Thai Beef SaladIMG_5245

  • 3-4 ounce strip loin steak
  • 1 Thai chili, julienned
  • ¼ red onion, sliced
  • ½ cup cucumber, julienned
  • 2 cups spring mix lettuce
  • 1/3 cup grape tomatoes, sliced in half or quarters
  • 4 leafs Thai basil, torn
  • ¼ cup torn cilantro
  • 1 tablespoon

Dressing:

  • 2 tablespoons lime juice
  • 1 tablespoon Thai fish sauce
  • 2 teaspoons low sodium soy sauce
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1 clove of garlic, minced

Grill steak on BBQ until cooked to your liking. Make dressing by combining all ingredients and whisking together. Assemble salad by laying down spring mix lettuce, toping with cucumbers, tomatoes and onions. Lay sliced steak on top and drizzle dressing over top. Garnish with Thai basil, cilantro and peanuts.  Serves 1.

Enjoy!

 

 

 

 

 

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